13.1 Imam Ibn Abi Shaybah and Al-Marwazi (رحمهم الله) in Al-Janaiz narrated from Hazrat Jabir (رضي الله عنه) that
When a person’s death is near, Surah Ar-R’ad should be recited near him because it will
be a cause of solace for the dying person, will ease the process of extraction of the soul
and he die in a state of dignity (إن شاء الله).
(Musnaf Ibn Abi Shaybah 2/445, Dur Al-Manthur)
13.2 Imam Abdur-Razzak, Ibn Munzir (رحمهم الله) narrated from Hazrat Az-Zuhri (رحمه الله) that
(In the Jahiliyah period) Umar ibn Khattab was severe against the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم). One day, he went near to the Prophet when he was offering Salah and he heard the Prophet reciting the Aayat
وما كنت تتلو من قبله من كتاب ولا تخطه بيمينك إذا لارتاب المبطلون
And you did not recite before it any scripture, nor did you inscribe one with your right hand. Otherwise the falsifiers would have had [cause for] doubt
بل هو آيات بينات في صدور الذين أوتوا العلم وما يجحد بآياتنا إلا الظالمون
Rather, the Qur’an is distinct verses [preserved] within the breasts of those who have been given knowledge. And none reject Our verses except the wrongdoers (29:48-49)
الذين كفروا لست مرسلا قل كفى بالله شهيدا بيني وبينكم ومن عنده علم الكتاب
And those who have disbelieved say, “You are not a Messenger.” Say, [O Muhammad], “Sufficient is Allah as Witness between me and you, and [the witness of] whoever has knowledge of the Scripture.” (13:43)
He waited until the Prophet concluded the prayer with Salam and then Umar ibn Khattab (رضي الله عنه) immediately presented himself and accepted Islam.
13.3 Ibn Kathir (رحمه الله) related about
الله يعلم ما تحمل كل أنثى وما تغيض الأرحام وما تزداد وكل شيء عنده بمقدار
Allah knows what every female carries and what the wombs lose [prematurely] or exceed. And everything with Him is by due measure (13:8)
In the two Sahihs it is recorded that Abdullah bin Mas’ud (رضي الله عنه) said that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) said, The matter of the creation of one of you is put together in the womb of the mother in forty days, and then he becomes a clot of thick blood for a similar period, and then a piece of flesh for a similar period. Then Allah sends an angel who is ordered to write four things. He is ordered to write down; his provisions, his life span, his deeds, and whether he will be blessed or wretched.”
In another Hadith, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) said, Then the angel asks, “O my Lord! Is it a male or a female, miserable or happy, what is its provisions and life span!” Allah then ordains and the angel records it.
Al-Bukhari recorded that Abdullah bin Umar (رضي الله عنه) said that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) said, “The Keys of the Ghayb (unseen knowledge) are five, nobody knows them but Allah. Nobody knows what will happen tomorrow except Allah; nobody knows what is in the womb except Allah; nobody knows when it will rain except Allah; no soul knows at what place he will die except Allah; and nobody knows when the (Final) Hour will begin except Allah.”
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
13.4 Ibn Kathir (رحمه الله) related about
له معقبات من بين يديه ومن خلفه يحفظونه من أمر الله
For each one are successive [angels] before and behind him who protect him by the decree of Allah (13:11)
An authentic Hadith states, Angels take turns around you, some at night and some by day, and all of them assemble together at the time of the Fajr and `Asr prayers. Then those who have stayed with you throughout the night, ascend to Allah Who asks them, and He knows the answer better than they about you, “How have you left My servants?” They reply, “As we have found them praying, we have left them praying.”
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah (رضي الله عنه) said that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) said,”Verily, every one among you has his companion from the Jinn and his companion from the angels.” They said, “And you too, O Allah’s Messenger!” He said, “And I too, except that Allah has helped me against him, so he only orders me to do good.” Muslim collected this Hadith.
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
13.5 Ibn Kathir (رحمه الله) related about
ويسبح الرعد بحمده والملائكة من خيفته ويرسل الصواعق فيصيب بها من يشاء وهم يجادلون في الله وهو شديد المحال
And the thunder exalts [ Allah ] with praise of Him – and the angels [as well] from fear of Him – and He sends thunderbolts and strikes therewith whom He wills while they dispute about Allah ; and He is severe in assault (13:13)
Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibrahim bin Sa’d said, My father told me that he was sitting next to Hamid bin Abdur Rahman in the Masjid. A man from the tribe of Ghifar passed and Hamid sent someone to him to please come to them. When he came, Hamid said to me, ‘My nephew! Make space for him between me and you, for he had accompanied Allah’s Messenger.’ When that man came, he sat between me and Hamid and Hamid said to him, ‘What was the Hadith that you narrated to me from the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم)?’ He said, A man from Ghifar said that he heard the Prophet say, “Verily, Allah originates the clouds, and they speak in the most beautiful voice and laugh in the most beautiful manner.”
It appears, and Allah has the best knowledge, that the cloud’s voice is in reference to thunder and its laughter is the lightning.
Musa bin Ubaydah narrated that Sa’d bin Ibrahim said, “Allah sends the rain and indeed, none has a better smile than it, nor more comforting voice. Its smile is lightning and its voice is thunder.”
Imam Ahmad recorded that Salim bin Abdullah narrated that his father said that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) used to say upon hearing the thunder and thunderbolts,
اللهم لا تقتلنا بغضبك ولا تهلكنا بعذابك وعافنا قبل ذلك
O Allah! Do not kill us with Your anger, nor destroy us with Your torment, and save us before that.”
When Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr (رضي الله عنه) used to hear thunder, he would stop talking and would supplicate, “All praise is to He Whom Ar-Ra’d (thunder) glorifies and praises, and so do the angels because of His awe.” He would then say, “This is a stern warning to the people of earth.” Malik collected this Hadith in Al-Muwatta’, and Al-Bukhari in Al-Adab Al-Mufrad.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) said that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) said, “Your Lord, the Exalted and Most High, said, `Had My servants obeyed Me, I would have given them rain by night and the sun by day, and would not have made them hear the sound of the Ra’d (thunder).”
Al-Hafiz Abu Al-Qasim At-Tabarani narrated that Ibn Abbas (رضي الله عنه) said that
Arbad bin Qays bin Juzu’ bin Julayd bin Jafar bin Kulab, and Amir bin At-Tufayl bin Malik came to Al-Madinah to the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) and sat where he was sitting. Amir bin At-Tufayl said, “O Muhammad! What will you give me if I embrace Islam!”
The Messenger of Allah said, “You will have the rights and duties of all Muslims.”
Amir bin At-Tufayl said, “Will you make me your successor if I embrace Islam?”
The Messenger of Allah said, “That is not your right, nor your people’s right. However, I could appoint you a commander of the horsemen (i.e., war).”
Amir said, “I am already the commander of the horsemen of Najd (in the north of Arabia). Give me control over the desert and you keep the cities.”
The Messenger of Allah refused.
When these two men were leaving the Messenger of Allah, Amir said, “By Allah! I will fill it (Al-Madinah) with horses and men (hostile to Muslims).”
The Messenger of Allah replied, “Rather, Allah will prevent you.”
When Amir and Arbad left, Amir said, “O Arbad! I will keep Muhammad busy while talking to him, so you can strike him with the sword. Verily, if you kill Muhammad, the people (Muslims) will agree to take blood money and will hate to wage war over his murder. Then we will give them the blood money.”
Arbad said, “I will do that,” and they went back to the Messenger.
Amir said, “O Muhammad! Stand next to me so that I can talk to you.”
The Messenger stood up, and they both stood next to a wall talking to each other. Arbad wanted to grab his sword, but his hand froze when it touched the sword’s handle and he could not take the sword out of its sheath.
Arbad did not strike the Messenger as Amir suggested, and the Messenger of Allah looked at Arbad and realized what he was doing, so he departed.
When Arbad and Amir left the Messenger of Allah and arrived at Al-Harrah of Waqim area, they dismounted from their horses. However, Sa`d bin Mu`adh and Usayd bin Hudayr came out saying, “Come, O enemies of Allah! May Allah curse you.”
Amir asked, “Who is this with you, O Sa`d?”
Sa`d said, “This is Usayd bin Hudayr.”
They fled until they reached the Riqm area, where Allah struck Arbad with a bolt of lightning and he met his demise.
As for Amir, he went on until he reached the Kharim area, where Allah sent an open ulcer that struck him. During that night, Amir took refuge in a woman’s house, from Banu Salul. Amir kept touching his open ulcer and saying, “An ulcer as big as a camel’s hump, while I am at the house of a woman from Bani Salul, seeking to bring my death in her house!”
He rode his horse, but he died while riding it headed to his area.
Ibn Abbas (رضي الله عنه) commented,
“The angels in succession, guard Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) by the command of Allah.”
He next mentioned the demise of Arbad by Allah’s command, reciting this Ayah.”
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
13.6 Ibn Kathir (رحمه الله) related about
جنات عدن يدخلونها ومن صلح من آبائهم وأزواجهم وذرياتهم والملائكة يدخلون عليهم من كل باب
Gardens of perpetual residence; they will enter them with whoever were righteous among their fathers, their spouses and their descendants. And the angels will enter upon them from every gate, [saying],
سلام عليكم بما صبرتم فنعم عقبى الدار
“Peace be upon you for what you patiently endured. And excellent is the final home.” (13:23-24)
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-`As (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) said, “Do you know who among Allah’s creation will enter Paradise first?” They said, “Allah and His Messenger have more knowledge.”He said, “The first among Allah’s creation to enter Paradise are the poor emigrants (in Allah’s cause) with whom the outposts (of the land) are secured and the various afflictions are warded off. One of them would die while his need is still in his chest, because he was unable to satisfy it himself. Allah will say to whom He will among His angels, ‘Go to them and welcome them with the Salam’.”
The angels will say, “We are the residence of Your heaven and the best of Your creation, do You command us to go to them and welcome them with the Salam!” Allah will say, “They are My servants who worshipped Me and did not associate anyone or anything with Me in worship. With them, the outposts were secured and the afflictions were warded off. One of them would die while his need is in his chest, unable to satisfy it.”
So the angels will go to them from every gate (of Paradise), saying, Salamun ‘Alaykum (peace be upon you) for you persevered in patience! Excellent indeed is the final home!”
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
13.7 Ibn Kathir (رحمه الله) related about
وما الحياة الدنيا في الآخرة إلا متاع
The worldly life is not, compared to the Hereafter, except [brief] enjoyment (13:26)
Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Mustawrid, from Bani Fihr, said that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) said, “The life of the present world, compared to the Hereafter, is just like when one of you inserts his finger in the sea, so let him contemplate how much of it will it carry (and he pointed with the index finger).” Imam Muslim also collected this Hadith in his Sahih.
In another Hadith, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) passed by a dead sheep, whose ears were small, and said, “By Allah! The life of this present world is as insignificant to Allah as this sheep was to its owners when they threw it away.”
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
13.8 Ibn Kathir (رحمه الله) related about
الذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات طوبى لهم وحسن مآب
Those who have believed and done righteous deeds – a good state is theirs and a good return. (13:29)
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (رضي الله عنه) said that a man asked,”O Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم)! Tuba for those who saw you and believed in you!”The Prophet said, “Tuba is for he who saw me and believed in me. Tuba, and another Tuba, and another Tuba for he who believed in me, but did not see me.”
A man asked, “What is Tuba?” The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) said, “A tree in Paradise whose width is a hundred years, and the clothes of the people of Paradise are taken from its bark.”
Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that Sahl bin Sa’d said that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) said, “There is a tree in Paradise, if a rider travels in its shade for one hundred years, he would not be able to cross it.
An-Nu`man bin Abi Ayyash Az-Zuraqi added, “Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri narrated to me that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) said, “There is a tree in Paradise, if a rider travels in its shade on a fast, sleek horse for one hundred years, he would not be able to cross it.”
Khalid bin Ma’ddan said, “There is a tree in Paradise called Tuba, that has breasts that nurse the children of the people of Paradise. Verily, the miscarriage of a woman will be swimming in one of the rivers of Paradise until the Day of Resurrection commences, when he will be gathered with people while forty years of age.” Ibn Abi Hatim collected this statement.
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
13.9 Ibn Kathir (رحمه الله) related about
يمحو الله ما يشاء ويثبت وعنده أم الكتاب
Allah eliminates what He wills or confirms, and with Him is the Mother of the Book (13:39)
Al-A’mash narrated that Abu Wa’il, Shaqiq bin Salamah said that he used to recite this supplication often,
“O Allah, if You wrote us among the wretched ones, remove this status from us and write us among the blessed ones. If You wrote us among the blessed ones, please let us stay that way, for surely, You blot out and confirm what You will, and with You is the Mother of the Book.”
Ibn Jarir At-Tabari collected this.
Similar statements were collected from Umar bin Al-Khattab and Abdullah bin Mas`ud (رضي الله عنهم), indicating that Allah blots out (or abrogates) and affirms what He wills in the Book of Records.
What further supports this meaning is that Imam Ahmad recorded that Thawban (رضي الله عنه) said that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) said, “A man might be deprived of a provision (that was written for him) because of a sin that he commits; only supplication changes Al-Qadar (Predestination); and only Birr (righteousness) can increase the life span.”An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah collected this Hadith.
(Abridged from Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
13.10 It was narrated that Abu Darda’ (رضي الله عنه) said
“I performed eleven prostrations with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) of which there were none in the Mufassal. Al-A’raf, Ar-Ra’d, An-Nahl, Bani Isra’il, Maryam, Al-Hajj, the prostration in Al-Furqan, Surat An-Naml (mentioning) Sulaiman, As- Sajdah, Sad, and the Ha-Mim Surah.”
13.11 Narrated ‘Abdul-Malik bin ‘Umair (رضي الله عنه)
From the nephew of ‘Abdullah bin Salam (رضي الله عنه) who said: “When they were after ‘Uthman (رضي الله عنه), ‘Abdullah bin Salam came, and ‘Uthman said to him: ‘What did you come for?’ He said: ‘I came to assist you.’ He said: ‘Go to the people to repel their advances against me. For verily your going is better to me than your entering here.'” He said: “So ‘Abdullah bin Salam went to the people and said: ‘O you people! During Jahiliyyah I was named so-and-so, then the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) named me ‘Abdullah, and some Ayat from the Book of Allah were revealed about me. (The following) was revealed about me:
وشهد شاهد من بني إسرائيل على مثله فآمن واستكبرتم إن الله لا يهدي القوم الظالمين
‘A witness from among the Children of Isra’il has testified to something similar, and believed while you rejected. Verily, Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people. (46:10)”
And (the following) was revealed about me:
قل كفى بالله شهيدا بيني وبينكم ومن عنده علم الكتاب
‘Sufficient as a witness between me and you is Allah, and those too who have knowledge of the Scripture. (13:43)”
Allah has sheathed the sword from you and the angels are your neighbors in this city of yours, the one in which the Revelation came to your Prophet. But by Allah! (Fear) Allah regarding this man; if you kill him, then by Allah! If you kill him, then you will cause the angels to remove your goodness from you, and to raise Allah’s sheathed sword against you, such that it will never be sheathed again until the Day of Resurrection.'” He said: “They said: ‘Kill the Jew and kill ‘Uthman.'”
13.12 Narrated Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه)
That the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) commented on:
ونفضل بعضها على بعض في الأكل
“Some of them We make more excellent than others to eat (13:4).”
He said: “The Daqal, the Persian (referring to different kind of dates), the sweet, the bitter.”
13.13 The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) has been quoted as saying that
Whoever recites Surah Ar-Raad will be made from among those who fulfill their promise to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and will be rewarded with his sins being replaced by tenfold good deeds.
13.14 It is narrated that Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (عليه السلام) has said that
If a Mu’min recites Surah Ar-Raad frequently, he will be taken to Jannah without having to give the long and detailed accounts for his deeds on Earth. He will also be allowed to intercede on behalf of his relatives and friends.
هو ربي لا إله إلا هو عليه توكلت وإليه متاب
He is my Lord; there is no deity except Him. Upon Him I rely, and to Him is my return (13:30)