58.1 It was narrated from ‘Urwah bin Zubair (رضي الله عنه), that ‘Aishah (رضي الله عنها) said:
“Blessed is the One Whose hearing encompasses all things. I heard some of the words of Khawlah bint Tha’labah, but some of her words were not clear to me, when she complained to the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) about her husband, and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) he has consumed my youth and I split my belly for him (i.e., bore him many children), but when I grew old and could no longer bear children he declared Zihar upon me; O Allah, I complain to You.’ She continued to complain until Jibra’il brought down these Verses: ‘Indeed Allah has heard the statement of she who pleads with you (O Muhammad) concerning her husband, and complains to Allah” (58:1)
58.2 Narrated Khuwaylah, daughter of Malik ibn Tha’labah:
My husband, Aws ibn as-Samit, pronounced the words: You are like my mother. So I came to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), complaining to him about my husband.
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) disputed with me and said: Remain dutiful to Allah; he is your cousin.
I continued (complaining) until the Qur’anic verse came down: “Certainly has Allah heard the speech of the one who argues with you, [O Muhammad], concerning her husband…” [58:1] till the prescription of expiation.
He then said: He should set free a slave. She said: He cannot afford it. He said: He should fast for two consecutive months. She said: Messenger of Allah, he is an old man; he cannot keep fasts. He said: He should feed sixty poor people. She said: He has nothing which he may give in alms. At that moment an araq (i.e. date-basket holding fifteen or sixteen sa’s) was brought to him.
I said: I shall help him with another date-basked (‘araq). He said: You have done well. Go and feed sixty poor people on his behalf, and return to your cousin. The narrator said: An araq holds sixty sa’s of dates.
Abu Dawud said: She atoned on his behalf without seeking his permission.
Abu Dawud said: This man (Aws b. al-Samit) is the brother of ‘Ubadah b. al-Samit.
58.3 Yahya related
To me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa that his father said that a man who pronounced a dhihar from his four wives in one statement, had only to do one kaffara. Yahya related the same as that to me from Malik from Rabia ibn Abi Abd ar-Rahman.
Malik said, “That is what is done among us. Allah, the Exalted said about the kaffara for pronouncing dhihar, ‘It is to free a slave before they touch one another. If he does not find the means to do that, then fasting for two consecutive months before they touch one another. If he cannot do that, it is to feed sixty poor people. ‘ ” (Sura 58 ayats 4,5).
Malik said that a man who pronounced dhihar from his wife on various occasions had only to do one kaffara. If he pronounced dhihar, and then did kaffara, and then pronounced dhihar after he had done the kaffara, he had to do kaffara again.
Malik said, “Some one who pronounces dhihar from his wife and then has intercourse with her before he has done kaffara, only has to do one kaffara. He must abstain from her until he does kaffara and ask forgiveness of Allah. That is the best of what I have heard. ”
Malik said, “It is the same with dhihar using any prohibited relations of fosterage and ancestry.”
Malik said, “Women have no dhihar.”
Malik said that he had heard that the commentary on the word of Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, “Those of you who pronounce the dhihar about their wives, and then retract what they have said,” (Sura 56 ayat 3), was that a man pronounced dhihar on his wife and then decided to keep her and have intercourse with her. If he decided on that, he must do kaffara. If he divorced her and did not decide to retract his dhihar of her and to keep her and have intercourse with her, there would be no kaffara incumbent on him.
Maliksaid, “If he marries her after that, he does not touch her until he has completed the kaffara of pronouncing dhihar.”
Malik said that if a man who pronounced dhihar from his slave-girl wanted to have intercourse with her, he had to do the kaffara of the dhihar before he could sleep with her.
Malik said, “There is no ila in a man’s dhihar unless it is evident that he does not intend to retract his dhihar.”
58.4 Ibn Kathir records
﴾ لا تجد قوما يؤمنون بالله واليوم الآخر يوادون من حاد الله ورسوله ولو كانوا آباءهم ﴿
You will not find a people who believe in Allah and the Last Day having affection for those who oppose Allah and His Messenger, even if they were their fathers (58:22)
was revealed in the case of Abu `Ubaydah `Amir bin `Abdullah bin Al-Jarrah when he killed his disbelieving father, during the battle of Badr. This is why when `Umar bin Al-Khattab placed the matter of Khilafah in the consultation of six men after him, he said; “If Abu `Ubaydah were alive, I would have appointed him the Khalifah.” It was also said that the Ayah,
﴾ أو أبناءهم ﴿
or their sons (58:22)
was revealed in the case of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq when he intended to kill his (disbelieving) son, `Abdur-Rahman, (during Badr), while the Ayah,
﴾ أو إخوانهم ﴿
or their brothers (58:22)
was revealed about the case of Mus`ab bin `Umayr, who killed his brother, `Ubayd bin `Umayr, during Badr, and that the Ayah,
﴾ أو عشيرتهم ﴿
or their kindred (58:22)
was revealed about the case of `Umar, who killed one of his relatives during Badr, and also that this Ayah was revealed in the case of Hamzah, `Ali and Ubaydah bin Al-Harith. They killed their close relatives `Utbah, Shaybah and Al-Walid bin `Utbah that day. Allah knows best.
A similar matter is when Allah’s Messenger consulted with his Companions about what should be done with the captives of Badr. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq thought that they should accept ransom for them so the Muslims could use the money to strengthen themselves. He mentioned the fact that the captured were the cousins and the kindred, and that they might embrace Islam later on, by Allah’s help. `Umar said, “But I have a different opinion, O Allah’s Messenger! Let me kill so-and-so, my relative, and let `Ali kill `Aqil (`Ali’s brother), and so-and-so kill so-and-so. Let us make it known to Allah that we have no mercy in our hearts for the idolators.”
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
58.5 Ibn Kathir related on the ayah
استحوذ عليهم الشيطان فأنساهم ذكر الله ﴿
﴾ أولئك حزب الشيطان ألا إن حزب الشيطان هم الخاسرون
Satan has overcome them and made them forget the remembrance of Allah . Those are the party of Satan. Unquestionably, the party of Satan – they will be the losers. (58:19)
That Abu Dawud recorded that Abu Ad-Darda’ said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say,
Any three in a village or desert among whom the Salah is not called for, will have the Shaytan control them. Therefore, adhere to the Jama`ah, for the wolf eats from the strayed sheep.) Za’idah added that As-Sa’ib said that Jama`ah, refers to, “Praying in congregation.”
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
58.6 Ibn Kathir related on the ayah
﴾ يرفع الله الذين آمنوا منكم والذين أوتوا العلم درجات والله بما تعملون خبير ﴿
Allah will raise those who have believed among you and those who were given knowledge, by degrees. And Allah is Acquainted with what you do. (58:11)
That Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu At-Tufayl `Amir bin Wathilah said that Nafi` bin `Abdul–Harith met `Umar bin Al-Khattab in the area of `Usfan. `Umar appointed Abu At-Tufayl to be the governor of Makkah. `Umar asked him, “Whom did you appoint as your deputy for the valley people (that is, Makkah).” `Amir said, “I appointed Ibn Abza, one of our freed slaves, as my deputy.” `Umar said, “You made a freed slave their governor in your absence” He said, “O Leader of the faithful! He has memorized Allah’s Book and has knowledge of regulations of inheritance, along with being a proficient judge.” `Umar said, “Surely, your Prophet has said,
‘Verily, Allah elevates some people and degrades others, on account of this Book’.” Muslim collected this Hadith.
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
58.7 Al-Wahidi recorded
(Hast thou not observed those who were forbidden conspiracy…) [58:8]. Ibn ‘Abbas and Mujahid said that this verse was revealed about the Jews and the hypocrites. This is because the latter used to talk secretly amongst themselves to the exclusion of the believers and then look at the believers and wink at each other. When the believers saw their secret communications, they said: “We think that they are doing this because they received news about our relatives and brothers who went out in military expeditions. They have been killed, wounded or defeated”. But when these secret conversations continued, they complained to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and he commanded them not to speak in secret to the exclusion of the believers. They did not heed his command and went back to secret conversations among themselves. Allah, exalted is He, therefore revealed this verse. (And when they come unto thee they greet thee with a greeting wherewith Allah greeteth thee not…) [58:8]. Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn ‘Umar al-Khashshsab informed us> Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Asfahani> Muhammad ibn Ishaq al-Sarraj> Qutaybah ibn Sa’id> Jarir> al-A’mash> Abu’l-Duha> Masruq> ‘A’ishah who said: “Some Jews came to the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, and said ‘Al-Sam to you, O Abu’l-Qasim!’ And so I replied: ‘Al-Sam to you too, and may Allah take you away!’ The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: ‘Stop, O ‘A’ishah! For Allah, exalted is He, does not like indecency nor the uttering of indecent words’. I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, did you not hear what they said?’ He said: ‘Do you not see that I have sent back to them what they said. I said: the same to you’. This verse was revealed about this (And when they come unto thee they greet thee with a greeting wherewith Allah greeteth thee not)”. Abu Sa’id Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Ghazi informed us> Abu ‘Amr Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Hiri> Ahmad ibn ‘Ali al-Muthanna> Zuhayr ibn Muhammad> Yunus ibn Muhammad> Shayban> Qatadah> Anas who said: “A Jewish man came to the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, and said: ‘Al-Sam be with you!’ The people who were present responded to him with the greetings of peace. The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said to them: ‘Do you know what this man said?’ They said: ‘O Prophet of Allah, Allah and His Messenger know best, [but we think he said: al-Salam [peace be with you]’. He said: ‘No, rather he said such-and-such a thing. So drive it away from me’. They drove it away from him. He then asked the Jewish man: ‘Did you say: al-Sam be with you?’ He said: ‘Yes, I did’. Upon which the Prophet of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, then said: ‘When one of the people of the Book greets you, say to him in response: And the same to you’. Then the words of Allah, Allah exalted is He, revealed (And when they come unto thee they greet thee with a greeting wherewith Allah greeteth thee not)”.
58.9 Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (عليه السلام) has said
That recitation of this Surah keeps one safe from the evil designs of Jinn and men. If recited on dust or sand and then thrown towards the enemy, he is easily overcome.