Benefits and Virtues of Surah 102 At-Takathur

virtues-benefits-surah-at-takathur

102. At-Takasur

102.1 ‘Abdullah bin Ash-Shikhkhir (رضي الله عنه) reported:

I came to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) while he was reciting (Surat At-Takathur 102):

﴾ ألهاكم التكاثر ﴿

“The mutual rivalry (for hoarding worldly things) preoccupy you.

﴾ حتى زرتم المقابر ﴿

Until you visit the graves (i.e., till you die).

﴾ كلا سوف تعلمون ﴿

Nay! You shall come to know!

﴾ ثم كلا سوف تعلمون ﴿

Again nay! You shall come to know!

﴾ كلا لو تعلمون علم اليقين ﴿

Nay! If you knew with a sure knowledge (the end result of hoarding, you would not have been occupied in worldly things).

﴾ لترون الجحيم ﴿

Verily, you shall see the blazing Fire (Hell)!

﴾ ثم لترونها عين اليقين ﴿

And again, you shall see it with certainty of sight!

﴾ ثم لتسألن يومئذ عن النعيم ﴿

Then (on that Day) you shall be asked about the delights (you indulged in, in this world)!”(102:1-8)

(After reciting) he (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, “Son of Adam (عليه السلام) says: ‘My wealth, my wealth.’ Do you own of your wealth other than what you eat and consume, and what you wear and wear out, or what you give in Sadaqah (charity) (to those who deserve it), and that what you will have in stock for yourself.”

Riyad as-Salihin Book 1, Hadith 483

102.2 It was narrated from Mutarrif, from his father (رضي الله عنهم),

That the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: “The mutual rivalry (for piling up of worldly things) diverts you, ‘Until you visit the graves (i.e. till you die).’ The son of Adam (عليه السلام) says: ‘My wealth, my wealth,’ but your wealth is what you eat and consume, or what you wear and it wears out, or what you give in charity and send on ahead (for the Hereafter).'”

Sunan an-Nasa’i 3613

102.3 Zirr bin Jubaish reported from Ali (رضي الله عنهم) that he said:

“We were still in doubt concerning the torment of the grave, until ‘the mutual rivalry diverts you” was revealed’.”

Jami` at-Tirmidhi Vol. 5, Book 44, Hadith 3355

102.4 Narrated Anas bin Malik (رضي الله عنه )

Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, “If Adam’s (عليه السلام) son had a valley full of gold, he would like to have two valleys, for nothing fills his mouth except dust. And Allah forgives him who repents to Him.”

Sahih al-Bukhari 6439

102.5 ‘Ubayy (رضي الله عنه) said (referring to the hadith above),

“We considered this as a saying from the Qur’an till the Surah (beginning with): “The mutual rivalry (for piling up of worldly things) diverts you’ (102:1) was revealed.”

Sahih al-Bukhari 6440

102.6 It was narrated from ‘Abdullah bin Zubair bin ‘Awwam that his father (رضي الله عنهم) said:

“When the following was reveled: “Then on that Day you shall be asked about the delights (you indulged in, in this world)! [102:8] Zubair said: ‘What delights shall we be asked about? It is only the two black ones, dates and water.’ He said: ‘It is going to happen.’”

Sunan Ibn Majah Vol. 5, Book 37, Hadith 4158

102.7 Ibn Kathir (رحمه الله) related about

﴾ ألهاكم التكاثر ﴿

The mutual increase diverts you (102:1)

That Al-Bukhari recorded from Anas bin Malik that the Messenger of Allah said, “Three things follow the deceased person, and two of them return while one remains behind with him. The things which follow him are his family, his wealth and his deeds. His family and his wealth return while his deeds remain.”

Imam Ahmad recorded from Anas that the Prophet said, “The Son of Adam (عليه السلام) becomes old with senility, but yet two things remain with him: greed and hope.”

(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)

102.8 Mufti Shafi Usmani (رحمه الله) related about

 ﴾ ثم لتسألن يومئذ عن النعيم ﴿

Then you will surely be asked that Day about pleasure (102:8)

The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is reported to have said that first question that will be put by Allah to every person is: “Did I not give you good health, and did I not give you cold water to quench your thirst?” (Tirmidhi, and Ibn Hibban)

The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is also reported to have said that no man will be able to move from his place unless he answers five questions: (1) How did he spend his life? (2) In what pursuits did he expend his youthful energy? (3) How did he earn his wealth – [by lawful means or unlawful means?] (4) Where did he spend his wealth – [in lawful ways or unlawful ways?] and (5) Did he act upon the knowledge Allah gave him? (Bukhari).

(Maariful Quran)

102.9 The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) asked:

“Can any one of you recite a thousand verses (of Qur’an) daily?” Sahabah replied: “Who has the ability to do so?” He said: “Can any one of you not recite:  Alhakumu Attakathur (Surah 102), (its reward is equivalent to the reciting of a thousand verses)”.

(Mustadrak Hakim)

102.10 The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said,

‘Whoever recites a thousand verses (of Qur’an) in one night would meet Allah with a smiling face’. Someone said, ‘O Apostle of Allah, who can recite a thousand verses?’ The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) then recited Surah At-Takathur and then said, ‘By Him in Whose Hand my soul is, it is equal to a thousand verses’.

(Al Khatib in Al Muttafaq wal Muftaraq, Dailami in Fath al Qadir 5/487)

102.11 Imam ibn Abi Hatim (رحمه الله) narrated from Sa’eed bin Hilali (رضي الله عنه)

That the Companions of the Prophet called Surah Alhakumu Attakathur by the name ‘Al-Mughirah‘ (The Changer).

(Dur al-Manthur)

102.12 Al-Wahidi (رحمه الله) recorded

(Rivalry in worldly increase distracteth you until ye come to the graves) [102:1-2]. Muqatil and al-Kalbi said: “This Surah was revealed about two clans of Quraysh: Banu ‘Abd Manaf and Banu Sahm. The two clans heaped abuses on each other and this led them to count the respective chiefs and leaders of each clan in order to see which one of them had more. The Banu ‘Abd Manaf said: ‘We have more leaders, chiefs and members!’ The Banu Sahm said the same thing. When it appeared that the Banu ‘Abd Manaf had more members, they said: ‘Let us also count the dead among us’. They visited the graveyards and counted the dead, and concluded that the Banu Sahm were greater in number, for they were greater in number in the pre-Islamic period”. And Qatadah said: “This Surah was revealed about the Jews who said: ‘We are greater in number than so-and-so, so-and-so and so-and-so’, and this claim distracted them until they died misguided”.

(Asbab Al-Nuzul)

102.13 Jarir bin Abdullah narrated that Rasulullah said,

“I will recite a a over you. Whoever weeps will certainly enter the Jannah.” Then he recited it. Some of us wept and some did not. Those who did not weep said, “O Messenger of Allah, we tried to weep, but we were not able to do it.” The Prophet said, “I will read it over you again. Whoever cries, for him is the Paradise and whoever is not able to cry, then he should make a weeping face.”

(Bayhaqi in Shuayb ul Iman, Dur al-Manthur)

102.14 Yahya related to me from Malik

That he heard that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, entered the mosque and found Abu Bakr as-Siddiq and Umar ibn al-Khattab there. He questioned them and they said, “Hunger has driven us out.” The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “And hunger has brought me out.” They went to Abu’l-Haytham ibn at- Tayyihan al-Ansari. He ordered that some barley that was in the house be prepared and he got up to slaughter a sheep for them. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Leave the one with milk.” He slaughtered a sheep for them and brought them sweet water and it was hung on a palm-tree. Then they were brought the food and ate it and drank the water. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recited, “Then, on that day, you will be asked concerning pleasure.” (102:8).

Muwatta Malik Book 49, Hadith 28

102.15 Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) reports:

“Once Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) came out of his house at such a time, that it was not his noble habit to do so at that time. Nor did anyone come to meet him at that time. At that moment Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) came to Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). He asked: ‘What brought you here, O Abu Bakr?’ Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) replied: ‘I came out to meet the Rasul of Allah, and look at his noble face.

[This was due to the complete relationship of Abu Bakr Siddiqe (رضي الله عنه) that when Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) unexpectedly came out of his house, it had an effect on Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه). According to this humble servant, this is the best explanation, and this complete relationship is the reason for the continuity of the khilaafah of Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) with the nabawi period after the death of Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). If someone else had been elected as a khalifah, then due to the incomplete relationship, there would have been some changes in the laws of the time. It would have been an additional sorrow after the demise of Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) for the Sahaabah, and would have been unacceptable to them, whereas, Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) had such a close and deep relationship with Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) that on many aspects Abu Bakr Siddiqe (رضي الله عنه) had the same thoughts as that of Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم).

The incident of Hudaybiyyah is a testimony to this, which has already been mentioned in the book: ‘Stories of the Sahaabah’. The Muslims felt so much humiliation in accepting the harsh conditions of the non-believers that many among the Sahaabah could not bear it. ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) anxiously came to Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, are you not the truthful Nabi of Allah?’ Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) replied: ‘Indeed, I am’. ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) said: ‘Are we not on The Haq (True Path) and the enemy on falsehood?’ Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) replied: ‘Truly indeed’. ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) said: ‘Why are we being degraded in this manner in our deen?’ Sayyidina (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) replied: “I am the Messenger of Allah, and I cannot disobey Him. Verily He is my Protector’. ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) said: ‘Did you not say to us that we are going to Makkah, and are going to perform the tawaaf?’ Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: ‘Verily it is true, but did I say that we will go this year to Makkah?’ ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) replied: ‘No, you did not say this’. Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) then said: ‘We will surely go to Makkah and perform tawaaf’.

After this ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) with the same zeal went to Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) and said: ‘O Abu Bakr, is this not the truthful Nabi of Allah?’ Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) replied: ‘Verily, yes’. ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) asked: ‘Are we not on the truth and the non-believers on falsehood?’ Abubakr (رضي الله عنه) replied: ‘Verily, true’. ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) then said: ‘Why are we being disgraced in this manner for our deen?’ Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) replied: ‘O man, without doubt, he is the truthful nabi, and he does not disobey Allah in the least, and only Allah is his Protector. Hold fast unto his reigns’. ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) replied: ‘Did he not say to us that we will be going to Makkah, and will be performing the tawaaf?’ Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) replied: ‘Did he promise you this that we will go this year?’ ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) replied: ‘No, he did not say this to us’. Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) said. ‘You will go to Makkah and will also perform tawaaf ‘.

This incident has been mentioned in detail in the Bukhaari.’ There are many other similar amazing incidents. Even when Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) committed an ijtihaadi slip up, Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) would also in that instance have the same opinion, as was the case with the prisoners of the Battle of Badr, the incident of which is mentioned at the end of Suratul Anfaal.

In this case Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) presenting himself at an unusual moment is the case of the soul of Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) having an influence on the heart of Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه), as if he was also feeling hungry.

I remember everything of the Sorrow of separation O (beloved) Zaalim But I forget everything after seeing your countenance.

Some of the ‘ulama state the coming of Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) was due to hunger, but after seeing Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) this feeling of hunger vanished. Therefore on the inquiry of Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), he did not mention this.

Some of the ‘ulama have written that Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) came due to the hunger he experienced, but he did not mention this, because it may become difficult for Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), for the difficulties of a friend supersedes the difficulties of one’s self.]

A little while passed, when ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) presented himself. Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) asked him the reason of presenting himself at such an odd time. He replied: ‘Because of hunger, O Messenger of Allah’. Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: ‘I am also experiencing a bit of that’. All then went to the house of Abul Haytham Ansaari (رضي الله عنه). He was the owner of many date palms, trees and sheep, and he did not have any servants [For this reason he did all the work himself]. They did not find him there. They asked his wife, ‘Where is your companion?’ She replied: ‘He has gone to bring sweet water for us’. A little while had not passed, when Abul Haytham (رضي الله عنه) experiencing difficulty arrived carrying the water bag. He put it down. He then came and honoured Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), his noble guest, and was pleased by the honour of meeting Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), (and proud of his good fortune, reciting and embracing him).

O companion when my benevolent moments will come. Without invitation you will come away to my home.

and began to sacrifice on Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) his father and mother. (i.e. He was saying, may my father and mother be sacrificed on you). After that he requested them to come to his palm grove. He spread out for them a mat, then went to a palm and brought a,whole bunch (which had ripe, half ripe etc. kinds of dates on it), and put it before them. Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: ‘Why did you not only pick the ripe ones’. (rather than bringing the whole bunch). He (the host) said. ‘Eat what pleases you from it’. They ate from it, and drank water. Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said there after, (of which every moment of his life was a means of education for the ummah), I swear an oath by the Being in whose hands lies my life, this is also included among those blessings of which one will be asked on the day of qiyaamah, (which Allah Ta’aala has mentioned at the end of Surah Takathur.

 ﴾ ثم لتسألن يومئذ عن النعيم ﴿

Then you will surely be asked that Day about pleasure (102:8)

It will be asked regarding gratitude. He then counted the blessings of that moment), the cool shadow, good fresh dates, and cold water. Thereafter the host started going to prepare meals, whereupon Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said to him, in happiness do not just slaughter any animal, but slaughter an animal that does not give milk. The host slaughtered for them a female or male young goat. (He quickly prepared the food), and presented it before them. They partook of it’ (Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) noticed that he was doing all the work by himself, and at the beginning he had brought the sweet water himself too).

Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) inquired: ‘Have you not any servants?’ He replied: ‘No’ Whereupon Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: ‘When slaves shall arrive, remind us. Incidentally only two slaves were brought to Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). Abul Haytham (رضي الله عنه) came to remind Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) of his promise. Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: ‘Choose any one of them’. (Where will such a Sahaabi who has sacrificed himself for Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) put forward his own desire in the presence of Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). Therefore,) He said: ‘O Nabi of Allah, you choose one for me’. (Besides piety, there could have been no other reason for liking and choosing a slave) Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: ‘An adviser is trustworthy (and by me being the trustworthy person) I choose this slave for you, as I had seen him perform his salaah.

Remember my one advice, and that is to treat him well’. (First Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) mentioned the rule an adviser must adopt. Then reminded that my choice will be a responsible and trustworthy one. He then chose one and gave his reason for it, that the slave is one that upkeeps the salaah, therefore this slave was given preference. In our times, for an employee to be punctual with the salaah is a fault,’ as it hinders the work of the employer). Abul Haytham (رضي الله عنه) went (happily home, that he had someone to help him in his chores) to his wife, and told her what Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had said. His wife said: “You will not be able to fulfill exactly that which Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had commanded. It is difficult for us to truly carry out that noble advice, therefore free him, for by this it will be possible to fulfil the commands of Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم).

The husband then said,. ‘He is free’. (He did not care the least for his troubles and difficulties. When Sayyidina Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) came to know about this honourable sacrifice) Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: ‘For every nabi and his successors Allah Ta’aala creates two concealed advisers. One of which induces to do good and saves from committing evil. The other advises not to care the least in ruining and destroying a person. The one that is saved from this persons wickedness, is being saved from all ruin and destruction”.

Shama’il Muhammadiyah Book 50, Hadith 354

 

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