48.1 Narrated Aslam (رضي الله عنه)
Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was traveling on one of his journeys, and `Umar bin Al-Khattab (رضي الله عنه)was traveling along with him at night. `Umar asked him about something, but Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) did not answer him. He asked again, but he did not answer. He asked for the third time, but he did not answer. On that, `Umar said to himself, “May your mother lose you! You have asked Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) three times, but he did not answer at all!”
`Umar said, “So I made my camel go fast till I was ahead of the people, and I was afraid that something might be revealed about me. After a little while I heard a call maker calling me, I said, ‘I was afraid that some Qur’anic Verse might be revealed about me.’ So I went to Allah’s Apostle and greeted him. He said, ‘Tonight there has been revealed to me a Surah which is dearer to me than that on which the sun shines (i.e. the world).’ Then he recited:
﴾ إنا فتحنا لك فتحا مبينا ﴿
‘Verily! We have given you (O Muhammad), a manifest victory’ ” (48:1)
48.2 Narrated `Abdullah bin Mughaffal (رضي الله عنه)
I saw Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) reciting Surat-al-Fath on his she-camel on the day of the Conquest of Mecca.
48.3 Narrated `Abdullah bin Mughaffal (رضي الله عنه)
I saw the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) reciting (Qur’an) while he was riding on his she camel or camel which was moving, carrying him. He was reciting Surat Fath or part of Surat Fath very softly and in an Attractive vibrating tone.
48.4 Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr (رضي الله عنه)
The last Surah revealed was Surat Al-Ma’idah and Al-Fath.
48.5 Narrated Habib bin Abi Thabit:
I went to Abu Wail to ask him [about those who had rebelled against `Ali (رضي الله عنه)]. On that Abu Wail said, “We were at Siffin [a city on the bank of the Euphrates, the place where the battle took place between `Ali and Muawiya (رضي الله عنهم)] A man said, “Will you be on the side of those who are called to consult Allah’s Book (to settle the dispute)?” `Ali said, ‘Yes (I agree that we should settle the matter in the light of the Qur’an).” ‘ Some people objected to `Ali’s agreement and wanted to fight.
On that Sahl bin Hunaif said, ‘Blame yourselves! I remember how, on the day of Al-Hudaibiya (i.e. the peace treaty between the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and the Quraish pagans), if we had been allowed to choose fighting, we would have fought (the pagans). At that time `Umar came (to the Prophet) and said, “Aren’t we on the right (path) and they (pagans) in the wrong? Won’t our killed persons go to Paradise, and theirs in the Fire?” The Prophet replied, “Yes.” `Umar further said, “Then why should we let our religion be degraded and return before Allah has settled the matter between us?”
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, “O the son of Al-Khattab! No doubt, I am Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and Allah will never neglect me.” So `Umar left the place angrily and he was so impatient that he went to Abu Bakr and said, “O Abu Bakr! Aren’t we on the right (path) and they (pagans) on the wrong?” Abu Bakr said, “O the son of Al-Khattab! He is Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), and Allah will never neglect him.” Then Sura Al-Fath (The Victory) was revealed.”
48.6 Narrated Abu Wail (رضي الله عنه)
We were in Siffin and Sahl bin Hunaif got up and said, “O people! Blame yourselves! We were with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) on the day of Hudaibiya, and if we had been called to fight, we would have fought. But `Umar bin Al Khatab (رضي الله عنه) came and said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)! Aren’t we in the right and our opponents in the wrongs’ Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, ‘Yes.’ `Umar said, ‘Aren’t our killed persons in Paradise and their’s in Hell?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ `Umar said, ‘Then why should we accept hard terms in matters concerning our religion? Shall we return before Allah judges between us and them?’
Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, ‘O Ibn Al- Khattab! I am the Messenger of Allah and Allah will never degrade me. Then `Umar went to Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) and told him the same as he had told the Prophet. On that Abu Bakr said (to `Umar). ‘He is the Messenger of Allah and Allah will never degrade him.’ Then Surat-al-Fath (i.e. Victory) was revealed and Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) recited it to the end in front of `Umar. On that `Umar asked, ‘O Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)! Was it (i.e. the Hudaibiya Treaty) a victory?’ Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, “Yes”.
48.7 Narrated Anas (رضي الله عنه)
That eighty people swooped down from the mountain of At-Tan’im to kill the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) during Salat As-Subh, but he captured them and (later) let them go. So Allah revealed the Ayah:
﴾ وهو الذي كف أيديهم عنكم وأيديكم عنهم ﴿
And it is He Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them (48:24)
48.8 Narrated At-Tufail bin Ubayy bin Ka’b (رضي الله عنه)
From his father, from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) (regarding this Ayah):
﴾ وألزمهم كلمة التقوى ﴿
And made them stick to the word of Taqwa (48:26).
He (ﷺ) said (the word is):
لا إله إلا الله
There is no god except Allah
48.9 Narrated Al-Bara (رضي الله عنه)
Do you (people) consider the conquest of Mecca, the Victory (referred to in the Qur’an 48:1). Was the conquest of Mecca a victory? We really consider that the actual Victory was the Ar-Ridwan Pledge of allegiance which we gave on the day of Al-Hudaibiya (to the Prophet) . On the day of Al-Hudaibiya we were fourteen hundred men along with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). Al-Hudaibiya was a well, the water of which we used up leaving not a single drop of water in it. When the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was informed of that, he came and sat on its edge. Then he asked for a utensil of water, performed ablution from it, rinsed (his mouth), invoked (Allah), and poured the remaining water into the well. We stayed there for a while and then the well brought forth what we required of water for ourselves and our riding animals.
48.10 Narrated Anas (رضي الله عنه)
“While the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was returning from Al-Hudaibiyyah it was revealed to him,
﴾ ليغفر لك الله ما تقدم من ذنبك وما تأخر ﴿
‘That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future (48:2).
So the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: ‘An Ayah has been revealed to me which is dearer to me than whatever is upon the earth.’ Then the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) recited it for them and they said: ‘Congratulations O Messenger of Allah! Allah has explained what He will do with you, but what will He do with us?’ So (the following) was revealed:
﴾ ليدخل المؤمنين والمؤمنات جنات تجري من تحتها الأنهار ﴿
That He may admit the believing men and the believing women into Gardens under which rivers flow’ up to (His Saying) ‘a supreme success (48:5).”
48.11 Mufti Shafi Usmani related about
﴾ لقد رضي الله عن المؤمنين إذ يبايعونك تحت الشجرة ﴿
Certainly was Allah pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to you, [O Muhammad], under the tree (48:18)
That the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is reported to have said: “The best of generations is my generation, then that which follows it immediately and then that which follows it immediately” (Bukari). There is a Hadith recorded in Tirmidhi on the authority of ‘Abdullah Ibn Mughaffal (رضي الله عنه). In it the Holy Prophet said: “Fear Allah, fear Allah regarding my Companions! Do not make them a target of your criticism after me. He who loves them does so on account of my love; he who hates them does so on account of hating me; and he who injures them has injured me, and he who injures me has injured Allah. He who intends to injure Allah will soon be punished by Him.”
48.12 Mufti Shafi Usmani related about
﴾ محمد رسول الله والذين معه أشداء على الكفار رحماء بينهم ﴿
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves (48:29)
That in a Hadith recorded by Bukhari, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has said, “He who loves for the sake of Allah and hates for the sake of Allah has attained the highest degree of faith.”
48.13 Hafiz Ibn Kathir related about
﴾ محمد رسول الله والذين معه أشداء على الكفار رحماء بينهم ﴿
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves (48:29)
That the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, “The parable of the believers in their kindness and mercy for each other is that of the body: when one of its organs falls ill, the rest of the body responds with fever and sleeplessness.” The Prophet also said, “A believer to another believer is like a building whose different parts enforce each other.”Then he clasped his hands with his fingers interlaced. Both of these Hadiths were collected in the Sahih.
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
48.14 Mufti Shafi Usmani related about
﴾ سيماهم في وجوههم من أثر السجود ﴿
Their mark is on their faces from the trace of prostration (48:29)
That it is recorded in Ibn Majah on the authority of Sayyidna Jabir (رضي الله عنه) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has said, “He who offers his Salah abundantly at night, his face looks good during the day.”
48.15 Hafiz Ibn Kathir related about
﴾ وعد الله الذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات منهم مغفرة وأجرا عظيما ﴿
Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds among them forgiveness and a great reward (48:29)
That in his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) said that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, “Do not abuse my Companions, for by the One in Whose Hand is my soul! If one of you spends the amount of Uhud in gold, that amount will never reach the level of one of them spending a Mudd half of it.”
48. 16 It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Salama (رضي الله عنه). He heard the tradition from his father who said:
We arrived at Hudaibiya with the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and we were fourteen hundred in number. There were fifty goats for them which could not be watered (by the small quantity of water in the local well). So, the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) sat on the brink of the well. Either he prayed or spat into the well. The water welled up. We drank and watered (the beasts as well).
Then the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) called us to take the vow of allegiance, as he was sitting at the base of a tree. I was the first man to take the vow. Then other people took the vow. When half the number of people had done so, he said to me: You take the vow, Salama. I said: I was one of those who took the vow in the first instance. He said: (You may do) again.
Then the Messenger. of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) saw that I was without weapons. He gave me a big or a small shield. Then he continued to administer vows to the people until it was the last batch of them. He said (to me): Won’t you swear allegiance, Salama? I said: Messenger of Allah, I took the oath with the first batch of the people and then again when you were in the middle of the people. He said: (Doesn’t matter), you may (do so) again. So I took the oath of allegiance thrice.
Then he said to me: Salama, where is the shield which I gave to thee? I said: Messenger of Allah, my uncle ‘Amir met me and he was without any weapons. So I gave the shield to him. The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) laughed and said: You are like a person of the days gone by who said: O God. I seek a friend who is dearer to me than myself. (When all Companions had sworn allegiance to the Holy Prophet), the polytheists sent messages of peace, until people could move from our camp to that of the Meccans and vice versa.
Finally, the peace treaty was concluded. I was a dependent of Talha b. Ubaidullah. I watered his horse, rubbed its back. I served Talha (doing odd jobs for him) and partook from his food. I had left my family and my property as an emigrant in the cause of Allah and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). When we and the people of Mecca had concluded a peace treaty and the people of one side began to mix with those of the other, I came to a tree, swept away its thorns and lay down (for rest) at its base; (while I lay there), four of the polytheists from the Meccans came to me and began to talk ill of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ).
I got enraged with them and moved to another tree. They hung their weapons (to the branches of the tree) and lay down (for rest). (While they lay there), somebody from the lower part of the valley cried out: Run up, O Muhajirs! Ibn Zunaim has been murdered. I drew my sword and attacked these four while they were asleep. I seized their arms and collected them up in my hand, and said: By the Being Who has conferred honor upon Muhammad, none of you shall raise his head, else I will smite his face.
(Then) I came driving them along to the Prophet (ﷺ). (At the same time) my uncle Amir came (to him) with a man from ‘Abalat called Mikraz. Amir was dragging him on a horse with a thick covering on its back along with seventy polytheists. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) cast a glance at them and said: Let them go (so that) they may prove guilty of breach of trust more than once (before we take action against them). So the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) forgave them. On this occasion. God revealed the Qur’anic verse:
﴾ وهو الذي كف أيديهم عنكم وأيديكم عنهم ببطن مكة من بعد أن أظفركم عليهم ﴿
It is He Who restrained their hands from you and your hands from them in the valley of Mecca after He had granted you a victory over them (48:24).
Then we moved returning to Medina, and halted at a place where there was a mountain between us and Banu Lihyan who were polytheists. The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) asked God’s forgiveness for one who ascended the mountain at night to act as a scout for the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and his Compinions. I ascended (that mountain) twice or thrice that night. (At last) we reached Medina. The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) sent his camels with his slave, Rabah, and I was with him. I (also) went to the pasture with the horse of Talha along with the camels.
When the day dawned, Abd al-Rahman al-Fazari made a raid and drove away all the camels of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), and killed the man who looked after them. I said: Rabah, ride this horse, take it to Talha b. ‘Ubaidullah and Inform the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) that the polytheists have made away with his camels. Then I stood upon a hillock and turning my face to Medina, shouted thrice: Come to our help! Then I set out in pursuit of the raiders, shooting at them with arrows and chanting a (self-eulogatory) verse in the lambic metre:
I am the son of al-Akwa’ And today is the day of defeat for the mean.
I would overtake a man from them, shoot at him an arrow which, piercing through the saddle, would reach his shoulder. and I would say: Take it, chanting at the same time the verse ‘And I am the son of al-Akwa’ And toady is the day of defeat for the mean.’ By God, I continued shooting at them and hamstringing their animals.
Whenever a horseman turned upon me, I would come to a tree and (hid myself) sitting at its base. Then I would shoot at him and hamstring his horse. (At last) they entered a narrow mountain gorge. I ascended that mountain and held them at bay throwing stones at them. I continued to chase them in this way until I got all the camels of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) released and no camel was left with them.
They left me; then I followed them shooting at them (continually) until they dropped more than thirty mantles and thirty lances. lightening their burden. On everything they dropped, I put a mark with the help of (a piece of) stone so that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and his Companions might recognize them (that it was booty left by the enemy).
(They went on) until they came to a narrow valley when so and so, son of Badr al-Fazari joined them. They (now) sat down to take their breakfast and I sat on the top of a tapering rock. Al-Fazari said: Who is that fellow I am seeing? They said: This fellow has harassed us. By God, he has not left us since dusk and has been (continually) shooting at us until he has snatched everything from our hands. He said: Four of you should make a dash at him (and kill him).
(Accordingly), four of them ascended the mountain coming towards me. When it became possible for me to talk to them, I said: Do you recognize me? They said: No. Who are thou? I said:
I am Salama, son of al-Akwa’. By the Being Who has honoured the countenance of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) I can kill any of you I like but none of you will be able to kill me.
One of them said: I think (he is right). So they returned.
I did not move from my place until I saw the horsemen of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), who came riding through the trees. Lo! the foremost among them was Akhram al-Asadi. Behind him was Abu Qatada al-Ansari and behind him was al-Miqdad b. al-Aswad al-Kindi. I caught hold of the rein of Akhram’s horse (Seeing this) they (the raiders) fled.
I said (to Akhram): Akhram, guard yourself against them until Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and his Companions join you. (He said:) Salama, if you believe in Allah and the Day of Judgment and (if) you know that Paradise is a reality and Hell is a reality, you should not stand between me and martyrdom, so I let him go.
Akhram and Abd al-Rahman (Fazari) met in combat. Akhram hamstrung Abd al-Rahman’s horse and the latter struck him with his lance and killed him. Abd al-Rahman turned about riding Akhram’s horse. Abu Qatada, a horse-man of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), met ‘Abd al-Rahman (in combat), smote him with his lance and killed him. By the Being Who honored the countenance of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), I followed them running on my feet (so fast) that I couldn’t see behind me the Companions of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), nor any dust raised by their horses.
(I followed them) until before sunset they reached a valley which had a spring of water, which was called Dhu Qarad, so that they could have a drink, for they were thirsty. They saw me running towards them. I turned them out of the valley before they could drink a drop of its water. They left the valley and ran down a slope. I ran (behind them), overtook a man from them, shot him with an arrow through the shoulder blade and said:
Take this. I am the son of al-Akwa’; and today is the day of annihilation for the people who are mean.
The fellow (who was wounded) said: May his mother weep over him! Are you the Akwa’ who has been chasing us since morning? I said: Yes, O enemy of thyself, the same Akwa’. They left two horses dead tired on the hillock and I came dragging them along to the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). I met ‘Amir who had with him a container having milk diluted with water and a container having water. I performed ablution with the water and drank the milk.
Then I came to the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) while he was at (the spring of) water from which I had driven them away. The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had captured those camels and everything else I had captured and all the lances and mantles I had snatched from the polytheists and Bilal had slaughtered a she-camel from the camels I had seized from the people, and was roasting its liver and hump for the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). I said: Messenger of Allah, let me select from our people one hundred men and I will follow the marauders and I will finish them all so that nobody is left to convey the news (of their destruction to their people).
(At these words of mine), the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) laughed so much that his molar teeth could be seen in the light of the fire, and he said: Salama, do you think you can do this? I said: Yes, by the Being Who has honoured you. He said: Now they have reached the land of Ghatafan where they are being feted. (At this time) a man from the Ghatafan came along and said: So and so slaughtered a camel for them. When they were exposing its skin, they saw dust (being raised far off). They said: They (Akwa’ and his companions) have come. So. they went away fleeing.
When it was morning, the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: Our best horseman today is Abu Qatada and our best footman today is Salama. Then he gave me two shares of the booty-the share meant for the horseman and the share meant for the footman, and combined both of them for me. Intending to return to Medina, he made me mount behind him on his she-camel named al-Adba’.
While we were travelling, a man from the Ansar who could not be beaten in a race said: Is there anyone who could compete (with me) in race to Medina? Is there any competitor? He continued repeating this. When I heard his talk, I said: Don’t you show consideration to a dignified person and don’t you have awe for a noble man? He said: No, unless he be the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). I said: Messenger of Allah, may my father and mother be thy ransom, let me get down so that I may beat this man (in the race). He said: It you wish, (you may). I said (to the man): I am coming to thee, I then turned my feet. sprang up and tan and gasped (for a while) when one or two elevated places were left and again followed his heel and again gasped (for a while) when one or two elevated places were left and again dashed until I joined him and gave a blow between his shoulders. I said: You have been overtaken, by Allah. He said: I think so.
Thus, I reached Medina ahead of him. By Allah, we had stayed there only three nights when we set out to Khaibar with the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). (On the way) my uncle, Amir, began to recite the following rajaz verses for the people:
By Allah, if Thou hadst not guided us aright, We would have neither practiced charity nor offered prayers. (O Allah! ) We cannot do without Thy favors; Keep us steadfast when we encounter the enemy, And descend tranquility upon us.
The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: Who is this? ‘Amir said: it is ‘Amir. He said: May thy God forgive thee!
The narrator said: Whenever the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) asked forgiveness for a particular person, he was sure to embrace martyrdom. Umar b. Khattab who was riding on his camel called out: Prophet of Allah, I wish you had allowed us to benefit from Amir. Salama continued: When we reached Khaibar, its king named Marhab advanced brandishing his sword and chanting: Khaibar knows that I am Marhab (who behaves like) A fully armed, and well-tried warrior. When the war comes spreading its flames. My uncle, Amir, came out to combat with him, saying: Khaibar certainly knows that I am ‘Amir, A fully armed veteran who plunges into battles.
They exchanged blows. Marbab’s sword struck the shield of ‘Amir who bent forward to attack his opponent from below, but his sword recoiled upon him and cut the main artery: in his forearm which caused his death. Salama said: I came out and heard some people among the Companions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) saying: Amir’s deed has been wasted; he has killed himself. So I came to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) weeping and I said: Messenger of Allah. Amir’s deed has been wasted. The Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: Who passed this remark? I said: Some of your Companions. He said: He who has passed that remark has told a lie, for ‘Amir there is a double reward.
Then he sent me to ‘Ali who had sore eyes, and said: I will give the banner to a man who loves Allah and His Messenger or whom Allah and His Messenger love. So I went to ‘Ali, brought him beading him along and he had sore eyes, and I took him to the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), who applied his saliva to his eyes and he got well. The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) gave him the banner (and ‘Ali went to meet Marhab in a single combat).
The latter advanced chanting: Khaibar knows certainly that I am Marhab, a fully armed and well-tried valorous warrior (hero) when war comes spreading its flames. ‘Ali chanted in reply:
I am the one whose mother named him Haidar, (And am) like a lion of the forest with a terror-striking countenance. I give my opponents the measure of sandara in exchange for sa‘ (i. e. return their attack with one that is much more fierce).
The narrator said: ‘Ali struck at the head of Marhab and killed him, so the victory (capture of Khaibar) was due to him.
This long tradition has also been handed down through a different chain of transmitters.
46.17 Narrated Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه)
The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) recited Inna Fatahna Laka Fathan Mubeena (Surah 48 Al-Fath) in the morning prayer.
(Musannaf Abd al-Razzaq 2/76, Dur al-Manthur)