28.1 Narrated Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه)
“The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said to his uncle: ‘Say La ilaha il Allah and I may bear witness with that, on your behalf, on the Day of Judgement.’ So he said: ‘If it weren’t that the Quraish would insult me (saying): “He only said it out of fright” then I would delight your eyes.’ Then Allah the Mighty and Sublime revealed:
﴾ إنك لا تهدي من أحببت ولكن الله يهدي من يشاء ﴿
Verily, you guide not whom you like, but Allah guides whom He wills (28:56).”
28.2 It is reported by Sa’id b. Musayyib who narrated it on the authority of his father Musayyib b. Hazm (رضي الله عنهم)
That when Abu Talib was about to die, the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) came to him and found with him Abu Jahl (‘Amr b. Hisham) and ‘Abdullah b. Abi Umayya ibn al-Mughirah. The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: My uncle, you just make a profession that there is no god but Allah, and I will bear testimony before Allah (of your being a believer).
Abu Jahl and ‘Abdullah b. Abi Umayya addressing him said: Abu Talib, would you abandon the religion of ‘Abdul-Muttalib? The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) constantly requested him (to accept his offer), and (on the other hand) was repeated the same statement (of Abu Jahl and ‘Abdullah b. Abi Umayya) till Abu Talib gave his final decision and be stuck to the religion of ‘Abdul-Muttalib and refused to profess that there is no god but Allah. Upon this the Messenger of Allah remarked: By Allah, I will persistently beg pardon for you till I am forbidden to do so (by God), It was then that Allah, the Magnificent and the Glorious, revealed this verse:
ما كان للنبي والذين آمنوا أن يستغفروا للمشركين ولو كانوا أولي قربى ﴿
﴾ من بعد ما تبين لهم أنهم أصحاب الجحيم
It is not meet for the Prophet and for those who believe that they should beg pardon for the polytheists, even though they were their kith and kin, after it had been made known to them that they were the denizens of Hell. (9:113)
And it was said to the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم):
﴾ إنك لا تهدي من أحببت ولكن الله يهدي من يشاء وهو أعلم بالمهتدين ﴿
Verily thou canst not guide to the right path whom thou lovest. And it is Allah Who guideth whom He will, and He knoweth best who are the guided. (28:56)
28.3 On the authority of Anas (رضي الله عنه) from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), who said:
The believers will gather together on the Day of Resurrection and will say: Should we not ask [someone] to intercede for us with our Lord? So they will come to Adam (عليه السلام) and will say: You are the Father of mankind; Allah created you with His hand, He made His angels bow down to you and He taught you the names of everything, so intercede for us with your Lord so that He may give us relief form this place where we are. And he will say: I am not in a position [to do that] – and he will mention his wrongdoing and will feel ashamed and will say: Go to Noah (عليه السلام), for he is the first messenger that Allah sent to the inhabitants of the earth.
So they will come to him and he will say: I am not in a position [to do that] – and he will mention his having requested something of his Lord about which he had no [proper] knowledge (Quran Chapter 11 Verses 45-46), and he will feel ashamed and will say: Go to the Friend of the Merciful [Abraham (عليه السلام)]. So they will come to him and he will say: I am not in a position [to do that]. Go to Moses (عليه السلام), a servant to whom Allah talked and to whom He gave the Torah. So they will come to him and he will say: I am not in a position [to do that] – and he will mention the taking of a life other that for a life (Quran Chapter 28 Verses 15-16), and he will feel ashamed in the sight of his Lord and will say: Go to Jesus (عليه السلام), Allah’s servant and messenger, Allah’s word and spirit. So they will come to him and he will say: I am not in a position [to do that]. Go to Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), a servant to whom Allah has forgiven all his wrongdoing, past and future.
So they will come to me and I shall set forth to ask permission to come to my Lord, and permission will be given, and when I shall see my Lord I shall prostrate myself. He will leave me thus for such time as it pleases Him, and then it will be said [to me]: Raise your head. Ask and it will be granted. Speak and it will be heard. Intercede and your intercession will be accepted. So I shall raise my head and praise Him with a form of praise that He will teach me. Then I shall intercede and He will set me a limit [as to the number of people], so I shall admit them into Paradise. Then I shall return to Him, and when I shall see my Lord [I shall bow down] as before.
Then I shall intercede and He will set me a limit [as to the number of people]. So I shall admit them into Paradise. Then I shall return for a third time, then a fourth, and I shall say: There remains in Hell-fire only those whom the Qur’an has confined and who must be there for eternity. There shall come out of Hell-fire he who has said: There is no god but Allah and who has in his heart goodness weighing a barley-corn; then there shall come out of Hell-fire he who has said: There is no god but Allah and who has in his heart goodness weighing a grain of wheat; then there shall come out of Hell-fire he who has said: There is no god but Allah and who has in his heart goodness weighing an atom. It was related by al-Bukhari (also by Muslim, at-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah).
28.4 Ibn Kathir related about
﴾ واضمم إليك جناحك من الرهب ﴿
And draw your hand close to your side to be free from the fear (28:32)
That Musa (عليه السلام) was commanded, when he felt afraid of anything, to draw his hand close to his side to be free from the fear. If he did that, whatever fear he felt would be gone. Perhaps if a person does this, following the example of Musa (عليه السلام), and puts his hand over his heart, his fear will disappear or be lessened, if Allah wills; in Allah we place our trust.
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
28.5 Ibn Kathir related about
﴾ وما أوتيتم من شيء فمتاع الحياة الدنيا وزينتها وما عند الله خير وأبقى ﴿
And whatever you have been given is an enjoyment of the life of the world and its adornment, and that which is with Allah is better and will remain forever (28:60)
The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: “By Allah, the life of this world in comparison to the Hereafter is as if one of you were to dip his finger in the sea; let him see what comes back to him.”
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
﴾ رب إني ظلمت نفسي فاغفر لي فغفر له إنه هو الغفور الرحيم ﴿
My Lord, indeed I have wronged myself, so forgive me,” and He forgave him. Indeed, He is the Forgiving, the Merciful. (28:16)
﴾ رب بما أنعمت علي فلن أكون ظهيرا للمجرمين ﴿
My Lord, for the favor You bestowed upon me, I will never be an assistant to the criminals. (28:17)
﴾ رب نجني من القوم الظالمين ﴿
My Lord, save me from the wrongdoing people. (28:21)
﴾ ربي أن يهديني سواء السبيل ﴿
Perhaps my Lord will guide me to the sound way. (28:22)
﴾ رب إني لما أنزلت إلي من خير فقير ﴿
My Lord, indeed I am, for whatever good You would send down to me, in need. (28:24)
﴾ ربي أعلم بمن جاء بالهدى من عنده ومن تكون له عاقبة الدار إنه لا يفلح الظالمون ﴿
My Lord is more knowing [than we or you] of who has come with guidance from Him and to whom will be succession in the home. Indeed, wrongdoers do not succeed. (28:37)
﴾ ربي أعلم من جاء بالهدى ومن هو في ضلال مبين ﴿
My Lord is most knowing of who brings guidance and who is in clear error. (28:85)