83. Al-Mutaffifin (At-Tatfif)
83.1 It was narrated that Ibn ‘Abbas (رضي الله عنه) said
When the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) came to Al-Madinah, they were the worst people in weights and measures. Then Allah, Glorious is He revealed:
Woe to the Mutaffifun (those who give less in measure and weight) (83:1),
and they were fair in weights and measures after that.
83.2 It was narrated from Ibn Umar (رضي الله عنه) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said
يوم يقوم الناس لرب العالمين
The Day when (all) mankind will stand before the Lord of all that exists (83:6)
One of them will stand in his sweat up to halfway up his ears.”
83.3 It was narrated from Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said
“When the believer commits sin, a black spot appears on his heart. If he repents and gives up that sin and seeks forgiveness, his heart will be polished. But if (the sin) increases, (the black spot) increases. That is the Ran that Allah mentions in His Book:
كلا بل ران على قلوبهم ما كانوا يكسبون
Nay! But on their hearts is the Ran (covering of sins and evil deeds) which they used to earn. (83:14)
83.4 Al-Qurazi (رحمه الله) said about
Woe to those who give less [than due] (83:1)
“There were some merchants in Medina who defrauded others. Their transaction were like gambling: buying by means of throwing a pebble on a specific merchandises (Munabadhah) without stipulating any terms or agreeing a contract or by touching the merchandise without looking at it (Mulamasah) or engaging in transactions which involve the risk of losing on both sides (Mukhatarah).
And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed this verse. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, went then to the marketplace and recited it”. Al-Suddi said: “When the Messenger of Allah arrived at Medina, there was there a man called Abu Juhaynah. This man had two scales: he used one scale when he sold things to people and the other when he bought from them. And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed this verse”.
83.5 Mufti Shafi Usmani (رحمه الله) related about
Woe to the curtailers (83:1)
It is recorded in Muwatta’ of Imam Malik that Sayyidna Umar Ibn-ul-Khattab (رضي الله عنه) saw a person curtailing (cutting short) his bowing and prostration postures in prayers, he said to him: ‘You have committed Tatfif (curtailed the right) of Allah.’ Having cited this statement of Sayyidna Umar Ibn-ul-Khattab (رضي الله عنه), Imam Malik (رحمه الله) formulates the following postulate: ‘Everything has a full due and a short measure.’
Sayyidna Abdullah Ibn Abbas (رضي الله عنه) has narrated that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has said: ‘There are five sins, for which there are five punishments.’ (1) He who breaks his covenant, Allah will cause his enemy to subdue him. (2) The nation that abandons the sacred laws of Allah, and decides cases according to other laws, poverty will prevail commonly among them. (3) The nation among whom promiscuity and zina (fornication or adultery) becomes rampant, Allah will punish them with epidemics and endemic diseases. (4) Those who curtail measures and weights, Allah will cause famine to break out amongst them. (5) Those who fail to pay their Zakah, Allah will withhold rain from them. (Qurtubi, Al-Bazzar)
Tabarani (رحمه الله) narrates from Ibn ‘Abbas (رضي الله عنه) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: “When it becomes rampant in a community to steal from the spoils of war, Allah will cast terror of enemies into their hearts; when usury becomes a common practice in a community, death becomes a frequent occurrence in that society; a community that gives short measure and weight, Allah cuts off their sustenance; those who decide against the truth, murder becomes common among them; and those who betray their agreement, Allah causes their enemies to prevail upon them.” (Mazhari)
83.6 Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (عليه السلام) has said
That if a person recites Al-Mutaffifin (Surah 83) in his Fardh (obligatory) prayers, he will be safe from the Hell. He will not even see it, hear it or even come close to it. His accounts for deeds will not be taken.