8.1 Narrated Uthman ibn Affan (رضي الله عنه)
(Surah) Al-Anfal is the first surah that was revealed at Medina.
8.2 Narrated Sa`id bin Jubair (رضي الله عنه)
I asked Ibn `Abbas regarding Surat Al-Anfal. He said, “It was revealed in connection with the Battle of Badr.”
8.3 Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (رضي الله عنه)
To those also, to whom your right hand was pledged, give their due portion. A man made an agreement with another man (in early days of Islam), and there was no relationship between them ; one of them inherited from the other. The following verse of Surat Al-Anfal abrogated it:
“But kindred by blood have prior right against each other.”
8.4 Narrated ‘Uqbah bin ‘Amir (رضي الله عنه)
That the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) recited this Ayah upon the Minbar:
And make ready against them all you can of power (8:60).
He said: “Verily! Power is shooting” – three times – “Verily! Allah will open the earth for you and suffice you with supplies, so let none of you forsake practicing with his arrows.”
8.5 Narrated Abu Burdah bin Abi Musa (رضي الله عنه)
From his father, that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “Allah sent down two guarantees of safety for the benefit of my Ummah:
And Allah would not punish them while you are among them, nor will He punish them while they seek forgiveness (8:33).
So when I pass, I leave seeking forgiveness among them until the Day of Resurrection.”
8.6 Narrated Mus’ab bin Sa’d (رضي الله عنه)
From his father who said: “On the Day of Badr I brought a sword so I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! Indeed Allah has satisfied my breast (i.e. my desire) on the idolaters – or something like that – give me this sword.’ So he said: ‘This is not for me, nor is it for you.’ I said: ‘Perhaps he will give this to someone who did not go through some struggle I went through (fighting).’ So the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) came to me [and he said:] ‘You asked me, but it was not up to me. But now it has occurred that it is up to me, so it is yours.'” He said: “So (the following) was revealed:
They ask you about the spoils of war (8:1).”
8.7 Yahya related to me that Malik said
That he had heard that Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz used to say, “The man on horse-back has two shares, and the man on foot has one.”
Malik added, “I continue to hear the same.”
Malik, when asked whether a man who was present with several horses took a share for all of them, said, “I have never heard that. I think that there is only a share for the horse on which he fought.”
Malik said, “I think that foreign horses and half-breeds are considered as horses because Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, said in His Book,
‘All horses, and mules, and asses, for you to ride, and as an adornment.’ (Sura16 ayat 8).
He said, the Mighty, the Majestic,
‘Make ready for them whatever force and strings of horses you can, to terrify thereby the enemy of Allah and your enemy.’ (Sura 8 ayat 60).
I think that foreign breeds and half-breeds are considered as horses if the governor accepts them.”
Said ibn al-Musayyab was asked about working horses, and whether there was zakat on them. He said, “Is there any zakat on horses.?”
8.8 Abu Sa’id b. al-Mu’alla (رضي الله عنه) said
That when he was praying the Prophet (ﷺ) passed by him and he called him. He said:I prayed ant then I came to him. He asked: What prevented you from answering me ? He replied: I was praying. He said: Has not Allah said:
“O you who believe, respond to Allah and the Apostle when he calls you to that which gives you life ? (8:24)
Let me teach you the greatest surah from the Qur’an or in the Qur’an (the narrator Khalid doubted) before I leave the mosque. I said: (I shall memorize) your saying. He said: It is: “Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Universe” which is the seven oft-repeated verses, and the mighty Qur’an.
8.9 Ibn ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) said
“We were on a raid and the people fled. We said, ‘How can we meet the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when we have run away? It has been revealed,
“unless he is withdrawing to rejoin the fight” (8:16).”
We said, ‘We will not go to Madina and then no one will see us.’ Then we said, ‘Perhaps we should go.’ The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came from the Fajr prayer and we said, ‘We fled.’ He said, ‘You are those rejoining the fight.”‘ We kissed his hand. He said, ‘I am your group.'”
8.10 Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (رضي الله عنه)
From ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab, who said: “The Prophet (ﷺ) looked over the idolaters, and there were a thousand of them, while his Companions were three-hundred and ten and some odd number of men. So the Prophet of Allah (ﷺ) faced the Qiblah, stretched forth his hands and began beseeching his Lord: ‘O Allah! Fulfill what You promised for me. [O Allah! Bring about what You promised for me] O Allah! If you destroy this band of adherents to Islam, you will not be worshiped upon the earth,’ He continued beseeching his Lord with his hands stretched, facing the Qiblah until his Rida fell from his shoulders. Abu Bakr came to him, took his Rida and placed it back upon his shoulders, then embraced him from behind and said: ‘O Prophet of Allah! You have sufficiently beseeched your Lord, indeed He shall fulfill what He promised you.’ So Allah, Blessed and Most High, revealed:
When you sought help of your Lord and He answered you (saying): ‘I will help you with a thousand of the angels in succession (8:9).’
8.11 Sa’id ibn Abi Waqqas (رضي الله عنه) said
“Four ayats were revealed about me. The first was when my mother swore she would neither eat nor drink until I left Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Allah Almighty revealed,
‘But if they try to make you associate something with Me about which you have no knowledge, do not obey them. Keep company with them correctly and courteously in this world’ (31:15)
The second was when I took a sword that I admired and said, ‘Messenger of Allah, give me this!’ Then the ayat was revealed:
‘They will ask you about booty.’ (8:1)
The third was when I was ill and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to me and I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, I want to divide my property. Can I will away a half?’ He said, ‘No.’ ‘A third?’ I asked. He was silent and so after that it was allowed to will away a third. The fourth was when I had been drinking wine with some of the Ansar. One of them hit my nose with the jawbone of a camel. I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Allah Almighty revealed the prohibition of wine.”
8.12 Anas b. Malik (رضي الله عنه) reported that Abu Jahl said
O Allah, if he is true, then shower upon us the volley of stones from the sky or inflict upon us a grievous torment, and it was on this occasion that this verse was revealed:”
‘Allah would never torment them so long as you are amongst them. And Allah is not going to torment them as long as they seek forgiveness. And why is it that Allah should not torment them and they prevent people from coming to the sacred mosque….” (viii. 34) to the end.
8.13 It was narrated that Malik bin Aws bin Al-Hadathan said:
“Al-Abbas and Ali came to ‘Umar with a dispute. Al-Abbas said: ‘Pass judgment between him and I.’ the people said: ‘Pass judgment between them.’ ‘Umar said: ‘I will not pass judgment between them. They know that the Messenger of Allah said: We are not inherited from, what we leave behind is charity. He said: And (in this narration of it) Az-Zuhri said: ‘It (the Khumus) was under the control of the Messenger of Allah , and he took provision for himself and for his family from it, and disposed to the rest of it as he disposed of other wealth (belonging to the Muslims). Then Abu Bakr took control of it, then I took control of it after Abu Bakr, and I did with it what he sued to do. Then these two came to me and asked me to give it to them so that they could dispose of it as the Messenger of Allah disposed of it, and as Abu Bakr disposed of it, and as I disposed of it.
So I gave it to them and I took promises from them that they would take proper care of it. Then they came to me and this one said. Give me my share from my brothers son: and this one said: Give me my share from my wife. If they want me to give it to them on the condition that they would dispose of it in the same manner as the Messenger of Allah did, and as Abu Bakr did, and as I did, I would give it to them, but if they refuse, then they do not have to worry about it.’ Then he said:
‘And know that whatever of spoils of war that you may gain, verily, one-fifth of it is assigned to Allah, and to the Messenger, and to the near relatives (of the Messenger (Muhammad), (and also) the orphans, Al-Masakin (the poor) and the wayfarer’ (Al-Anfal 8:41)
this if for them. ‘As-Sadaqat (here it means Zakah) are only for the Fuqara (poor), and Al-Masakin (the poor) and those employed to collect (the funds); and to attract the hearts of those who have been inclined (toward Islam); and to free the captives; and for those in debt; and for Allah’s cause (I.e. for Mujahidun – those fighting in a holy battle)’ – this is for them. ‘And what Allah gave as booty (Fay‘) to His Messenger (Muhammad) from them – for this you made no expedition with either cavalry or camels.’ Az-Zuhri said: This applies exclusively to the Messenger of Allah and refers to an ‘Arab village called Fadak, and so on. What Allah gave as booty (Fay’) to His Messenger (Muhammad) from the people of the townships – it is for Allah, His Messenger (Muhammad), the kindred (of Messenger Muhammad), the orphans, Al-Masakin (the poor), and the wayfarer (And there is also a share in this booty) for the poor emigrants, who were expelled from their homes and their property And (it is also for) those who, before them, had homes (in Al-Madinah) and had adopted the Faith And those who came after them. These is no one left among the Muslims but he has some rights to this wealth, except for some of the slaved whom you own. If I live, if Allah wills, I will give every Muslim his right.” Or he said: “His share.”
8.14 It was narrated from Sumait bin Sumair, that ‘Imran bin Husain said:
“Nafi’ bin Azraq and his companions came and said: ‘You are doomed, O ‘Imran!’ He (‘Imran) said: ‘I am not doomed.’ They said: ‘Yes you are.’ I said: ‘Why am I doomed?’ They said: ‘Allah says:
“And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and polytheism, i.e., worshipping others besides Allah), and the religion (worship) will be all for Allah Alone.”[8:39]
He said: ‘We fought them until they were defeated and the religion was all for Allah Alone. If you wish, I will tell you a Hadith that I heard from the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ).’ They said: ‘Did you (really) hear it from the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ)?’ He said: ‘Yes. I was with the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) and he had sent an army of the Muslims to the idolaters. When they met them they fought them fiercely, and they (the idolaters) gave them their shoulders (i.e., turned and fled). A man among my kin attacked an idolator man with a spear, and when he was defeated he said: “I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, I am a Muslim.” But he stabbed him and killed him.
He came to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) and said: “O Messenger of Allah, I am doomed.” He said “What is it that you have done?” one or two times. He told him what he had done and the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said to him: “Why didn’t you cut open his belly and find out what was in his heart?” He said: “O Messenger of Allah, I wish I had cut open his belly and could have known what was in his heart.” He said: “You did not accept what he said, and you could not have known what was in his heart!” The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) remained silent concerning him (that man), and a short while later he died. We buried him, but the following morning he was on the surface of the earth. They said: “Perhaps an enemy of his disinterred him.” So we buried him (again) and told our slaves to stand guard. But the following morning he was on the surface of the earth again then we said: ‘Perhaps the slaves dozed off.’ So we buried him (again) and stood guard ourselves, but the following morning he was on the surface of the earth (again). So we threw him into one of these mountain passes.’”
8.15 Mus’ab b. Sa’d (رضي الله عنه) reported
On the authority of his father that many verses of the Qur’an had been revealed in connection with him. His mother Umm Sa’d had taken oath that she would never talk with him until he abandoned his faith and she neither ate nor drank and said:
Allah has commanded you to treat well your parents and I am your mother and I command you to do this. She passed three days in this state until she fainted because of extreme hunger and at that time her son whose name was Umara stood up and served her drink and she began to curse Sa’d that Allah, the Exalted and Glorions, revealed these verses of the Holy Qur’an:
” And We have enjoined upon a person goodness to his parents but if they contend with thee to associate (others) with Me of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not” (xxix. 8) ; Treat thein with customary good in this world” (xxxi. 15).
He also reported that there fell to the lot of Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) huge spoils of war and there was one sword in them. I picked that up and came to Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) and said: Bestow this sword upon me (as my share in the spoils of war) and you know my state. Thereupon he said: Return it to the place from where you picked it up. I went back until I decided to throw it in a store but my soul repulsed me so I came back and asked him to give that sword to me. He said in a loud voice to return it to the place from where I had picked it up. It was on this occasion that this verse was revealed:
” They asked about the spoils of war” (viii. 1).
He further said: I once fell ill and sent a message to Allah’s Apostle (ﷺ). He visited me and I said to him: Permit me to distribute (in charity) my property as much as I like. He did not agree. I said: (Permit me to distribute) half of it. He did not agree. I said: (Permit me to distribute) the third part, whereupon he kept quiet and it was after this (that the distribution of one’s property in charity) to the extent of one-third was held valid. He further said: I came to a group of persons of the Ansir and Muhajirin and they said: Come, so that we may serve you wine, and it was before the use of wine had been prohibited. I went to them in a garden and there had been with them the roasted head of a camel and a small water-skin containing wine. I ate and drank along with them and there came under discussion the Ansr (Helpers) and Muhajirin (immigrants). I said: The immigrants are better than the Ansar, that a person picked up a portion of the head (of the camel and struck me with it that my nose was injured. I came to Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) and informed him of the situation that Aliah, the Exalted and Glorious, revealed verses pertaining to wine:
” Intoxicants and the games of chance and (sacrificing to) stones set up and (divining by) arrows are only an uncleanliness, the devil’s work” (v. 90).
8.16 Ibn Kathir related about
إذ تستغيثون ربكم فاستجاب لكم أني ممدكم بألف من الملائكة مردفين
[Remember] when you asked help of your Lord, and He answered you, “Indeed, I will reinforce you with a thousand from the angels, following one another.” (8:9)
Ali bin Abi Talhah Al-Walibi reported that Ibn Abbas said, “Allah supported His Prophet and the believers with a thousand angels, five hundred under the leadership of Jibril on one side and five hundred under the leadership of Mika’il on another side.”
Imams Abu Jafar bin Jarir At-Tabari and Muslim recorded that Ibn Abbas said that Umar said, “While a Muslim man was pursuing an idolator (during the battle of Badr), he heard the sound of a whip above him and a rider saying, `Come, O Hayzum!’ Then he looked at the idolator, who fell to the ground. When he investigated, he found that the idolator’s nose had wound and his face torn apart, just as if he received a strike from a whip on it, and the entire face had turned green. The Ansari man came to the Messenger of Allah and told him what had happened and the Messenger replied,”You have said the truth, that was from the reinforcements from the third heaven.”
The Muslims killed seventy (pagans) in that battle and captured another seventy. Al-Bukhari also wrote a chapter in his Sahih about the participation of the angels in Badr. He collected a Hadith from Rifa`h bin Rafi Az-Zuraqi, who participated in Badr, Jibril came to the Prophet and asked him, “How honored are those who participated in Badr among you?” The Prophet said, “Among the best Muslims. Jibril said, “This is the case with the angels who participated in Badr.” Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith.
In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that; the Messenger of Allah said to Umar, when Umar suggested that the Prophet have Hatib bin Abi Balta`ah executed, He (Hatib) participated in Badr. How do you know that Allah has not looked at the people of Badr and proclaimed, `Do whatever you want, for I have forgiven you.’
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
8.17 Ibn Kathir related about
واتقوا فتنة لا تصيبن الذين ظلموا منكم خاصة واعلموا أن الله شديد العقاب
And fear a trial which will not strike those who have wronged among you exclusively, and know that Allah is severe in penalty. (8:25)
It is recorded by Imam Ahmad from Hudhayfah bin Al-Yaman that the Messenger of Allah said, “By He in Whose Hand is my soul! You will enjoin righteousness and forbid evil, or Allah will send a punishment upon you from Him; you will supplicate then to Him, but He will not answer your supplication.”
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
8.18 Ibn Kathir related about
وما كان الله ليعذبهم وأنت فيهم وما كان الله معذبهم وهم يستغفرون
But Allah would not punish them while you, [O Muhammad], are among them, and Allah would not punish them while they seek forgiveness. (8:33)
Ahmad recorded in his Musnad and Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, that Abu Sa`id narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, “Shaytan said, ‘By Your Might, O Lord! I will go on luring Your servants as long as their souls are still in their bodies.’ The Lord said, ‘By My Might and Majesty! I will keep forgiving them, as long as they keep invoking Me for forgiveness’.”
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
8.19 Ibn Kathir related about
وقاتلوهم حتى لا تكون فتنة ويكون الدين كله لله فإن انتهوا فإن الله بما يعملون بصير
And fight them until there is no fitnah and [until] the religion, all of it, is for Allah . And if they cease – then indeed, Allah is Seeing of what they do. (8:39)
In the Two Sahihs, the Messenger of Allah said, “I was commanded to fight against the people until they proclaim, ‘There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.’ If and when they say it, they will preserve their blood and wealth from me, except for its right (Islamic penal code), and their reckoning is with Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored.
Also, in the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abu Musa Al-Ashari said, “The Messenger of Allah was asked about a man who fights because he is courageous, in prejudice with his people, or to show off. Which of these is for the cause of Allah? He said,”Whoever fights so that Allah’s Word is the supreme, is in the cause of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored.”
It is recorded in the Sahih that; the Messenger of Allah said to Usamah bin Zayd when he overpowered a man with his sword, after that man proclaimed that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah; “Have you killed him after he proclaimed, ‘La Ilaha Illallah!’ What would you do with regard to ‘La Ilaha Illallah’ on the Day of Resurrection. Usamah said, “O Allah’s Messenger! He only said it to save himself.” The Messenger replied,”Did you cut his heart open? The Messenger kept repeating, “What would you do with regard to ‘La Ilaha Illallah’ on the Day of Resurrection? until Usamah said, “I wished I had embraced Islam only that day.”
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
8.20 Ibn Kathir related about
إذ يغشيكم النعاس أمنة منه
[Remember] when He overwhelmed you with drowsiness [giving] security from Him (8:11)
Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, “Slumber during battle is security from Allah, but during prayer, it is from Shaytan.” Qatadah said, “Slumber affects the head, while sleep affects the heart.” Slumber overcame the believers on the day of Uhud, and this incident is very well-known. As for this Ayah, it is describing the battle of Badr, indicating that slumber also overcame the believers during Badr. Therefore, it appears that this will occur for the believers, whenever they are in distress, so that their hearts feel safe and sure of Allah’s aid, rewards, favor and mercy from Allah with them.
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
8.21 Ibn Kathir related about
يا أيها الذين آمنوا إذا لقيتم فئة فاثبتوا واذكروا الله كثيرا لعلكم تفلحون
O you who have believed, when you encounter a company [from the enemy forces], stand firm and remember Allah much that you may be successful (8:45)
Abdullah bin Abi Awfa said that during one battle, Allah’s Messenger waited until the sun declined, then stood among the people and said, “O people! Do not wish to face the enemy (in a battle) and ask Allah to save you (from calamities). But if you should face the enemy, then be patient and let it be known to you that Paradise is under the shadows of the swords.” He then stood and said,
اللهم منزل الكتاب، ومجري السحاب، وهازم الأحزاب، اهزمهم وانصرنا عليهم
O Allah! Revealer of the (Holy) Book, Mover of the clouds, and Defeater of the Confederates, defeat them and grant us victory over them
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
8.22 Ibn Kathir related about
يا أيها النبي حرض المؤمنين على القتال
O Prophet, urge the believers to battle (8:65)
The Messenger of Allah used to encourage the Companions to fight when they faced the enemy. On the day of Badr when the idolators came with their forces and supplies, he said to his Companions, “Get ready and march forth towards a Paradise as wide as the heavens and earth.” Umayr bin Al-Humam said, “As wide as the heavens and earth!”The Messenger said, “Yes”. Umayr said, “Excellent! Excellent!” The Messenger asked him, “What makes you say, ‘Excellent! Excellent!'”He said, “The hope that I might be one of its dwellers.” The Prophet said, “You are one of its people.” Umayr went ahead, broke the scabbard of his sword, took some dates and started eating from them. He then threw the dates from his hand, saying, “Verily, if I lived until I finished eating these dates, then it is indeed a long life.” He went ahead, fought and was killed, may Allah be pleased with him.
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
8.23 Ibn Kathir related about
فكلوا مما غنمتم حلالا طيبا
So consume what you have taken of war booty [as being] lawful and good (8:69)
The Two Sahihs recorded that Jabir bin Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said, “I have been given five things which were not given to any Prophet before me. (They are:) (i) Allah made me victorious by awe, (by His frightening my enemies) for a distance of one month’s journey. (ii) The earth has been made a place for praying and a purifier for me. (iii) The booty has been made lawful for me, yet it was not lawful for anyone else before me. (iv) I have been given the right of intercession (on the Day of Resurrection). (v) Every Prophet used to be sent to his people only, but I have been sent to all mankind.
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
8.24 Ibn Kathir related about
والذين آمنوا ولم يهاجروا ما لكم من ولايتهم من شيء حتى يهاجرو
But those who believed and did not emigrate – for you there is no guardianship of them until they emigrate (8:72)
Imam Ahmad recorded that Buraydah bin Al-Hasib Al-Aslami said, “When the Messenger of Allah would send a commander with an expedition force or an army, he would advise him to have Taqwa of Allah and be kind to the Muslims under his command.
He used to say,
اغزوا باسم الله
Fight in the Name of Allah
،في سبيل الله
In the cause of Allah
قاتلوا من كفر بالله
Fight those who disbelieve in Allah
When you meet your Mushrik enemy, then call them to one of three choices, and whichever they agree to, then accept it and turn away from them. (i) Call them to embrace Islam, and if they agree, accept it from them and turn away from them. Then call them to leave their area and come to areas in which the Muhajirin reside. Make known to them that if they do this, they will have the rights, as well as, the duties of the Muhajirin. (ii) If they refuse and decide to remain in their area, make known to them that they will be just like Muslim Bedouins, and that Allah’s law applies to them just as it does to all believers. However, they will not have a share in the war booty or Fai’ (booty without war), unless they perform Jihad along with Muslims. (iii) If they refuse all of this, then call them to pay the Jizyah, and if they accept, then take it from them and turn away from them.
If they refuse all these (three) options, then trust in Allah and fight them. Muslim collected this Hadith.
(Tafsir Ibn Kathir)